Clifford's Tower in YorkHow The Good Christians of York Murdered 150 Jewish, Men, Women and Children and then hid the atrocity for 800 years.

Do you think the newspaper article shown alongside (Tribute To Jews) is a fair report of the history of Clifford's Tower?  Do you believe the Jews committed mass suicide?  Then think again.  It's a propaganda cover-up by the Christian Church to absolve itself of blame.  Now the SAFF can divulge the whole truth below which you will be astonished to read.

They told you it was a 'mob' which started the massacre to kill all of York's Jews, but the truth is that it was the aristocracy of York who engineered the killings because they were heavily indebted to the Jews and could not pay.  In particular the nobleman Richard Malebysse, of whom there is absolutely no mention in the sanitised newspaper article in the right-most column.

"The village [Acaster Malbis, just outside York] is mentioned in the Domesday Book as Acastre in the wapentake of Ainsty... Ownership passed to the Malbysse family during the reign of Richard I. The family held the lands for about 200 years. In 1190, Richard Malebysse was a leader involved in the massacre of the Jews at Cliffords Tower in York....  " Source: Wikipedia

Note that other authorities claim those few 'officially' punished for the Massacre at Clifford's Tower were in fact scapegoats and in reality only cosmetic action was taken against the ring-leaders because they were  pillars of the York Christian community. Apparently Richard Malebysse (Malbis, Malbysse) got away with causing the deaths of hundreds of Jews with a relative slap on the wrist as the following extract shows:

"The Romans had a settlement here and after the Norman conquest the D’Acaster family built a church around 1100.  The Malbysse family came to England with  William the Conqueror and the two families of D’Acaster and Malbysse were united in marriage.  Richard Malbysse, known as  “Mala Bestia”, was fined £40 for his part in the infamous massacre of the Jews in Clifford’s Tower in 1190." Source:
Note that this fine levied by the King was equivalent to the cost or rebuilding the destroyed stockcade on Clifford's Tower, thus was a penalty designed to recoup the King's equity, not to punish Malbysse for killing 150 Jews!

In 1200 (ten years after Malebysse's estate was supposedly siezed by the King as punishment for starting the pogrom at Clifford's Tower)  Richard Malbysse was licensed to fortify a castle he was building on the very same land! [ Source: York archives MYO61]

There has been a continuous re-writing of history to absolve the Christian Establishment in York of any blame for murdering 150 Jews in York.  The 1990 'commemoration' in the right-most column is another classic example of how the intellectual descendants of the Christians in power 800 years ago are still in charge of covering up the truth of the matter today.

An extract from David Humes History of England (circa 1750) taken from the 13c Waverley Annals ( see bottom of rightmost column) proves that the Clifford's Tower Massacre was a pogrom against all Jews caused by hyper-agressive conflict in the Holy Land.   Antipathy to the Jews grew not only because of the absolutist beliefs of Christianity but because the majority of aristocrats, including the King, were indebted to the Jews and were seeking methods of defaulting on paying them back.

First English Pogrom Against The Jews Occurred in London

The very first pogrom against the Jews in England occurred on the coronation day of Richard I in September 1189.  He had specifically banned Jews from attending his coronation but some turned up with gifts thinking that these would curry favour. Richard had them stripped and flogged and then thrown out of court. This example detonated sectarian hatred against the Jews in London. A rumour went around that the King had ordered all Jews who would not repent and accept baptism into Christianity to be killed.

"Many Jewish homes were burned down, and several Jews were forcibly baptised. Some sought sanctuary in the Tower of London, and others managed to escape. Among those killed was Jacob of Orléans, a respected Jewish scholar.  Realising that the assaults could destabilise his realm on the eve of his departure on crusade, Richard ordered the execution of those responsible for the most egregious murders and persecutions, including rioters who had accidentally burned down Christian homes. He distributed a royal writ demanding that the Jews be left alone. The edict was loosely enforced, however, and the following March there was further violence including a massacre at York." Source
[Ed: In fact some commentators point out that the 'punishment' was a pretence and hardly anyone was held to account for the London pogrom]

Benedict of York

One of the prominent Jews who had tried to attend Richard's coronation was Benedict of York. He was mortally wounded in the pogrom which followed. He died shortly afterwards from his wounds. Remember that name, for he is the link with the Clifford's Tower massacre. Benedict was the York agent of Aaron of Lincoln to whom landowner Richard Malbis (Malebysse), the ringleader who started the York massacre, owed large debts he could not pay.

"After rioting had engulfed the towns of Norwich, Stamford and Lincoln they began in York with a mob attempting to burn down Benedict’s palatial house.  The Jews were officially protected by the king as his feudal vassals and sought protection in the royal castle (Clifford's Tower), barricading themselves into the wooden keep. The rioters, meanwhile, were egged on by members of the local gentry [ the ring-leaders were ] called Richard Malebisse, William Percy, Marmeduke Darell and Philip de Fauconberg.

These men saw the riots as an opportunity to wipe out the extensive debts they owed to Jewish money-lenders in the city. They had borrowed heavily from Jewish money-lenders but had failed to secure lucrative royal appointments and so could not afford to repay their debts. Indeed, after the massacre they proceeded to burn the records of their debts held in the Minster, so absolving themselves from repayment to the king, who would acquire the property and debts owed to the murdered Jews."  Source:

The Web of Intrigue:

Note this web of intrigue well: Malebysse and Percy held adjoining estates just outside York (Acaster Malbis / Bolton Percy). Richard Maleybisse's grandfather Hugo had actually married into the Percy family {Emma Percy} giving a new insight into the close interests of the conspirators.

Marmeduke Darell was the lord of the Manor in Sessay (a Parish north-west of York) and that area was controlled by the De Percy family having a mesne lordship there anciently from St Cuthbert's Church in Durham.  

All these 'nobles' had a vested interest in whipping up hatred against the Jews to default on payment of their debts and all had lands and wealth in common.

Another high personage directly involved in the conspiracy was Philip de Fauconberg (later Falconberg), a powerful family of nobles even today, with multifarious links to the church. Fauconberg actually had legal control of all the lands in 'Ainsty' a 'riding' in which ALL of the other conspirators land resided. 

St William of Norwhich: First Satanic Ritual Abuse Victim?

 The towns of Norwich and Lincoln ( which suffered similar Jewish pogroms) were already hypersensitive to the anti-Jewish Blood Libel myth because in 1144 the William of Norwich scandal had occurred where the Jewish community were blamed and attacked for ritually killing a nondescript boy, William, who had been found inexplicably dead.  There was no hard evidence that any Jew was involved but what did that matter to anti-semites?   Richard de Malebysse was in considerable debt to Aaron of Lincoln through Aaron's agent, Benedict of YorkSee how the web of intrigue spins itself?

William of Norwich was hurriedly canonised by the Church to cement the Jewish Blood Libel Myth in the minds of the English.

Whitewash by the Christian Church and it's influential members

Thus, although the good fathers of York have repetitively passed off the massacre of 150 Jews there as 'suicide' and blamed the cause of it on an unrepresentative ignorant mob, this SAFF historical exclusive proves that Malbysse and the other aristocrats, churchmen and gentry of York siezed the opportunity following the 'example' shown by Richard I in London, to massage local anti-semitism and belief in the Blood-Libel (Jews sacrificing Christian children) in the lead-up to Passover.

By urging the mob to attack and fire Benedict of York's house, killing all his heirs in the process, Malbysse, Percy, Darrell and Fauconberg used their henchmen to rid themselves of their debts to the Jews.

When the mob, mad with sectarian hatred, moved on to other Jews the rest of the authorities in York, most of whom also owed debts to the Jews or perceived them as being racially inferior, tacitly joined in the pogrom.  Once all the Jews of York had been corralled in Clifford's Tower the authorities largely offered no resistance. Neither did the Sherrif of York use his constables to try to control the mob when they set fire to the wooden stockade and burned the jews alive.

The whitewashed rewrite of history, the ones you will find in the history books,  says that, faced with inevitable death by burning alive, many of the Jews killed their wives and children for a merciful end and the people of York were later absolved of the full guilt for their actions by the false explanation of a 'mass suicide'. Now you know different.

Xist Propaganda Overturned after 800 years.

There are two salient points which lead us to overturn the 'official' history of the Clifford's Tower Massacre. The first is that whilst the plebs in the mob were driven by pure hate, the people in power knew that when they took flight each Jew would have taken their personal gold with them, thus not only was fate giving indebted nobles an opportunity to rid themselves of usury but a fortune awaited those in authority who could move in and take the pickings after the mobs hatred had been expiated.

The second is the question of who started the fire.  There was great difficulty in starting any fire in the 1190s.  The method used then was to strike a piece of flint against a 'steel' (actually a bar of iron ) in order to cause sparks to fly off into specially prepared tinder called 'char cloth' which was treated to become highly inflamable.

In those far off days there were no matches and people rarely lit a fire to order.  They occasionally, usually communally, made fire and once it had been lit kept that fire alive for days and weeks, even months, taking embers from that to other fires/stoves/lights in the house.  This was the old idea of the 'Need Fire' where eight times a year 'old-fires' would be extinguished in the village, a new sacred fire started from scratch and 'new fire' used to re-start/refresh every hearth. 

The idea that the Jews 'set fire' to the wooden stockade which was Clifford's Tower, is plausible, but so is firing the gates of a wooden citadel, because it was the standard method used by those wanting to get into a stockade during a siege.  Particularly as the mob on the outside could have obtained an ember of fire from any York house within easy reach.

After six days of  the Jews being holed up in the stockade someone on the outside lost patience and set fire to it with the Jews inside.   This may not have been exactly what the nobles and churchmen of York wanted (unpicking slugs of melted gold from the bones of old Jews is far harder work than simply taking it from their purses after you've butchered them) but fate is fate and cynical people make the best of it. 

Note that most lynch-mobs occur during a short period of collective rage, it is highly unusual for this rage to last more than a day or so. By day six of the Clifford's Tower siege most of the mob would have expiated their rage and gone home to go about their normal business.  Only a hard core of jew-baiters would have been left for the authorities to deal with, yet the city fathers still did not apparently take charge of the situation.

 "Richard de Malbis (Richard Malebysse), was in considerable debt to the Jew Aaron of Lincoln. When a fire accidentally broke out in the city on 16 March 1190, de Malbis used the opportunity to incite a mob to attack the home of Benedict of York, the recently deceased agent of Aaron of Lincoln, killing his widow and children and burning the house."
As the pogrom was taking place,

 "The gentry of the neighbourhood, who were all indebted to the Jews, ran to the cathedral, where their bonds were kept, and made a solemn bonfire of the papers before the altar."

So the pious gentry of York, hypocrites to a man, not only broke into the Cathedral in front of their god but actually used some of the altar candles to set fire to the documents which were the only proof of their indebtedness to the Jews.


 There are conflicting estimates of the start,  duration and end of the Clifford's Tower Massacre in the historical reports.  We have used historical dates and using computer reverse-dating technology on both the Julian and the Hebrew calander have produced this timeline for the massacre.

March16th  'accidental' Fire in York
March 17th  Sabbath before Passover/Pesach
March 23rd: Clifford's Tower's Wooden Keep fired.
March 24th  Passover/Pesach begins (Nisan 15, 4950)
April 25th:  Easter Day in 1190 


Firstly, remember that the key to the timing of the massacre was likely to have been the approaching Jewish Feast of Passover.  Every year at this time the old Blood-Libel myth would come to the fore and still did even into modern times.  My grandfather lived in Poland and told me how all Jewish Children were kept off school during passover and sometimes Easter (in some years Pesach and Easter are very close in the calendar) He said they were kept off school and told to hide in the cellars of their homes for safety for a day or so until the festivals had passed. 

As we have pointed out, the first recorded claim of Jewish ritual murder in England (the forerunner to claims of Satanic Ritual Child Abuse) was in the spring of 1144 when William of Norwich an English boy whose death was based on hearsay evidence from Christians that the Jewish community of Norwich had ritually killed a Christian boy at Passover.

The Influence of Holy War

Note that the first  Christian vs Moslem crusade had taken place in 1095 making the threat of Islam and other 'counterfeit' beliefs uppermost in the common mind at that time. 

The first formalised muster of Christian warriors by the church intended to extirpate not only Islam but also all other dissenters, began in Europe in 1145 and caused frequent attacks on Jewish communities on the continent,  as this extract shows:
" As in the First Crusade, the preaching inadvertently led to attacks on Jews; a fanatical French monk named Rudolf was apparently inspiring massacres of Jews in the Rhineland, Cologne, Mainz, Worms and Speyer, with Rudolf claiming Jews were not contributing financially to the rescue of the Holy Land. St. Bernard traveled from Flanders to Germany to deal with the problem and quieten the mobs. Bernard then found Rudolf in Mainz and was able to silence him, returning him to his monastery."
This evidence of fundamentalist priests whipping up hatred is a common aspect of anti-Jewish witch-hunts and indeed a bible-thumping priest was recorded as being present exacerbating hatred against the Jews at Clifford Tower (see later).   Not so co-incidentally, the European-wide hysteria surrounding the Satanic Ritual Abuse myth of the 1990s was also started and knowingly exacerbated by a clutch of Christian fundamentalist lay-preachers, ministers and evangelical troublemakers as we record elsewhere in the SAFF website.

So there was already a hypersensitive attitude to the Jews in England, created by the Church campaign against Islam, and over-sensitivity to all unorthodox religions and sects, particularly Jews.  King Henry II had nominally protected the rights of Jews but when his successor Richard I (also known as 'the Lionheart') came to the throne things became different. Richard was a crusader king, obsessed with religious wars and was very antagonistic towards Jews.

How The Massacre Played Out

"On Saturday 16 March 1190 (Nisan 7, 4950) there was a special Jewish Sabbath celebration prior to the festival of Passover/Pesach which that year occurred on Saturday 24th March. "

    "Malebisse temporarily scaped to Scotland but returned later to take up his lands and position."

Whether the fire in York on March16th was indeed 'accidental' or whether Malebysse and the other conspirators set it themselves to suit their own purposes, the rioting in York began in earnest. 

The following evening was the 17th, the the Jewish feast of Shabbat ha-Gadol ( the Sabbath before Passover/Pesach) and, seeing the dangers the Jew Josce (Joseph) of York, the leader of the Jewish community there, pleaded for permission from the Constable of York Castle to bring his wife and children, Rabbi Yom Tov and the rest of the Jews into Clifford's Tower.

A motte and Bailey Keep similar to the one which the Jews would have sheltered inThe group, numbering about 150, [Ed: some reports say nearer 500 but that could be a confusion with the burials in the Jewish Cemetary - see later ]  took refuge in the Keep which then stood on Clifford's Tower mound or Motte.  At that time it was a wooden tower, not the stone edifice which can be seen in photographs today.

"The warden allowed the Jews to enter and then left them alone (because the Jews were under the direct protection of the king).  They feared that the warden would be bribed to betray them so when he returned they refused to admit him.  The warden complained to the sheriff John Marshall that the Jews had cheated him.   The Sheriff roused the militia and the rest of the townspeople.    This large gathering beseiged the trapped Jews for some days while preparations were made to storm the castle and force them out to the mercy of the baying mob  A fire was started in their refuge, whether by the Jews or their persecutors is uncertain.   When it became clear that their situation was hopeless many of the Jews took their own lives. "  Source:

Note that in those days there was no police force. Law and order was kept by a volunteer force of vigilantes 'the militia'  made up of ordinary citizens who would be 'roused' whenever a hue and cry took place.

Each morning during the seige a hermit monk joined the baying mob and celebrated mass at the gates, offering redemption to the Jews if they renounced their religion and turned to Christianity. 

According to written accounts The Jews answered by throwing things at him from the keep. One stone, it is said, hit home and killed the monk; this inflamed the crowd even further for blood.  To us this seems like a piece of later impropaganda, added to explain the vicious actions of the people of York.  Jews locked in a tower which they cannot escape,  terrified for their lives due to a mob outside baying for their blood, are hardly likely to enflame the situation further by throwing stones at their tormentors.  Neither is there any other instance of a man being killed by being hit by a single stone and we believe the account owes a lot to the biblical story of David and Goliath.

For 5/6 days  (until 23rd/24th March ) the Jews held out.

"As it dawned the Jews who had survived the terrible night of fire and suicide begged for mercy and offered to convert to Christianity if they were spared They were tricked into leaving but were butchered instead of being allowed baptism.
    The ring-leader Richard Maleybisse and his accomplices went to the cathedral where they burned documents stored for safekeeping. These specified details of money they owed to the Jews. This, it would seem was the driving force behind the tragedy."

The official story from the Jewish side is that, with no hope of escape, Rabbi Yom Tov advised the other Jews to kill themselves rather than convert.  Josce, the leader of the York Jewish community began by slaying his wife Anna and his two children. He was then killed by Rabbi Yom Tov.   The father of each family killed his wife and children and then Rabbi Yom Tov stabbed the men before killing himself.  So the story goes.  The Jews then set alight the tower so their bodies could not be mutilated by the mob. [Ed; We refute this part of the story as a later gloss martyrising the Jews who died.  Because no Jew survived the massacre (those who did survive the fire were butchered), it can only be conjecture and as we have pointed out elsewhere, some Jews are likely to have been forced to kill their loved ones after the fire was started to spare them being burned alive. Note that, as in Christianity, suicide is proscribed in Judaism. ]

As the above quote and other ancient records show, some Jews did in fact escape the fire (throwing doubt on the idea of a suicide pact ) but were then slaughtered by the Christians waiting outside.

"A handful of Jews who did not kill themselves surrendered at daybreak, leaving the castle on a promise that they would not be harmed. But they were all killed by the mob." Source [Ed: Note: Wikipedia credits the firing of the tower as happening on March 17th but this is in error]
 "This resulted in the city receiving a heavy fine from the King, but by that time the instigators had escaped and no individuals were ever punished for the crimes committed on that fateful night. Probably some of them joined the King himself on crusade, as he was by then en route to the Holy Land through France."
Now read the cutting in the rightmost column again and see how York has denied its guilt for eight centuries.  

When the Archbishop of York fully accepts the despicable actions of his Church and the noblemen who protected it, he will be able to stand with Jews in commemoration of the Massacre at Clifford's Tower, until then his wailing can be seen solely as a cynical PR exercise designed to fool people into ignoring the Establishment's role in a dastardly sectarian atrocity by passing it off as an abberation caused by the ignorant mob, rather than what it really is, incontrovertible evidence of Christianity's historical use of the Blood Libel (allegations of the Sacrifice of Christian children) to persecute of the Jews. 

John Freedom and Tony Rhodes



800 Years Later This is the Weasel Way The Church Tries to Lift the Curse Staining Their Town.

From the Yorkshire Evening Post 2nd February 1990

1990 Commemoration in York of the massacre of 150 Jews at Clifford's Tower
Full text follows:


By Colin Wright

"A SERIES of religious services, lectures and commemorative exhibitions will be held in York next month to mark the 800th anniversary of the mass suicide of 150 Jews at Clifford's Tower.

The city’s entire Jewish community was wiped out in March 1190 after its members were driven to the battlements by a mob demanding that they must be baptised or die.

Their leader, Rabbi Yomtob, chose that they should kill themselves rather than submit to the demands of the crowd.

Those Jews who did not take their own lives were left without protection from the Sheriff of York an his constables and were hunted down and killed.

The deaths, still remembered as a massacre in the Jewish liturgy, scarred relationships between Jews and gentiles in the city for centuries.

The event will be marked on three days next month by the Council of Christians and Jews of Britain in conjunction with the B’nai Brith Music Festival through lectures, exhibitions and music, culminating in a Service of Heritage and Hope in York Minster.

The organisers believe that the events are a fitting way to mark their respect and highlight the problems of intolerance and extremism still being experienced worldwide eight centuries later. '

The Rev Geoffrey Hunter,  Canon of York Minster and chairman of the organising committee, said: “In the 20th century we have seen worse intolerance and hatred than in any other.

“We are still looking at the problems of inter-racial and inter-cultural communities. It is particularly appropriate in ’ regard to the events we are witnessing in Eastern Europe and South Africa which hang in balance and could lead so easily to communal bloodshed"

But the commemoration already provoked some criticism from members of the orthodox Jewish community in Yorkshire who have objected to it taking place during a period which covers the Jewish Sabbath.

Rabbi Walter Rothschild said that a commemoration of such a sensitive period of history was bound to attract dissenters.

“It is important now to learn lessons from history and from events of this century. We must look to the future as well and make sure that massacres of this kind, and indeed any form of intolerance, are not repeated.”

On the steps of Clifford’s Tower,in preparation  for commemoration, are Canon Geoffrey Hunter (foreground) with (from front) Dr Edward Royle, Mrs Geraldine Auerbach, Canon Ralph Mayland and Rabbi Walter Rothschild . Picture; KEVIN Harvey"

But Past History Reveals The Cover Up

In 1978, the Jewish Historical Society installed a memorial plaque at Clifford's Tower to commemorate the 1190 murders which said:

Jewish Historical Society's plaque commemorating the 1190 massacre in 1978

Below is how the plaque looked in 1990, when the Church made it's fine offer to 'commemorate' the 800th anniversary of the massacre.

How the plaque looks today in 2015

No gilding left and erosion has made it largely unreadable.  Convenient that. The people of York would probably like to ignore the fact that their ancestors killed 150 (some reports say 500) innocent Jews in a scandalous anti-semitic pogrom urged on by local nobles and their church lackies;  and so the plaque is not cared for.

The 1978 plaque is situated to the left of the steps on the mound, even if visitors see it as they climb them they can't possibly read it.   Note the weasel wording of the plaque 'Chose to die at each others' hands', a lie neatly deferring blame for their deaths from the Christians who caused it!

English Heritage New Visitor Centre will Cover Jewish Massacre memorial

In contrast  English Heritage who administer Clifford's Tower and charge tourists a fiver a time to look around are ready to spend a fortune on placards and signage telling tourists how grand the place is!  It won't be long before acid rain has washed away the entire slate plaque, then the good burghers of York can forget about it altogether and concentrate on spending millions updating the tourist honey-spot with plans to build a new visitor centre right over where the 1978 plaque is located. You can read about English Heritage's ambitious plans here but you will find NO mention of the massacre nor plans for a monument to commemorate it in the fabulous new buildings! 

Jewish Bones secretly exhumed

The Missing Skeletons of the York Jewish Cemetry

The bodies of the victims of the Clifford's Tower massacre were probably buried in the Jewish cemetry nearby.  In 1984 the area was earmarked for development and during excavations for a Sainsbury's Supermarket, the bones of over 500 Jews were discovered. They were exhumed in secret and stored in a local museum!  

Quite by chance Rabbi Levine was on his way to Manchester a few months later and having a few hours to spare before he made his connection he enquired at the Tourist Office if there about the nearest Jewish cemetry.

He was told about the recent excavations and eventually started a campaign to re-bury and sanctify the skeletons in their original position, a modern crypt was  constructed under the area where the bones were re-intered with full religious ceremony  and a plaque placed on the surface to mark the spot.   If Rabbi Levine had not arrived at just the right time and fought for the right thing, the Jewish remains would have most likely been dumped by the people who run York.  The full story about this saga, and the supposed 'Jewish Curse' on York (actually a religious Cherem or prohibition by Jewish leaders that Jews should never again take up residence in York) is outlined in this excellent little booklet   which you can download free.

Now Read a More Honest Account of The Clifford's Tower Massacre written shortly after the actual event.

Massacre Of The Jews At The Coronation Of Richard I (1189) From 'The History of England' by David Hume circa 1750, taken from The Annals of Waverley (12c),

"The king, impelled more by the love of military glory than by superstition, acted, from the beginning of his reign, as if the sole purpose of his government had been the relief of the Holy Land, and the recovery of Jerusalem from the Saracens.

This zeal against infidels, being communicated to his subjects, broke out in London on the day of his coronation, and made them find a Crusade less dangerous, and attended with more immediate profit.

The prejudices of the age had made the lending of money on interest pass by the insidious name of usury: yet the necessity of the practice had still continued it, and the greater part of that kind of dealing fell everywhere into the hands of the Jews; who, being already infamous on account of their religion, had no honour to lose, and were apt to exercise a profession, odious in itself, by every kind of rigour, and even sometimes by rapine and extortion.

The industry and frugality of this people had put them in possession of all the ready money, which the idleness and profusion common to the English with other European nations, enabled them to lend at exorbitant and unequal interest.

The monkish writers represent it as a great stain on the wise and equitable government of Henry, that he had carefully protected this infidel race from all injuries and insults; but the zeal of Richard afforded the populace a pretence for venting their animosity against them.

The king had issued an edict prohibiting Jews appearing at his coronation; but some of them bringing him large presents from their nation, presumed, in confidence of that merit, to approach the hall in which he dined.

Being discovered, they were exposed to the insults of the bystanders; [Ed: Some accounts say they were flogged and then thrown out of the court ] they took to flight; the people pursued them; the rumour was spread, that the king had issued orders to massacre all the Jews; a command so agreeable was executed in an instant on such as fell into the hands of the populace; those who had kept at home were exposed to equal danger; the people, moved by rapacity and zeal, broke into their houses, which they plundered, after having murdered the owners; where the Jews barricaded their doors, and defended themselves with vigour, the rabble set fire to the houses, and made way through the flames to exercise their pillage and violence; the usual licentiousness of London, which the sovereign power with difficulty restrained, broke out with fury, and continued these outrages; the houses of the rich citizens, though Christians, were next attacked and plundered; and weariness and satiety at last put an end to the disorder.

Yet, when the king empowered Glanville, the justiciary, to inquire into the authors of these crimes, the guilt was found to involve so many of the most considerable citizens, that it was deemed more prudent to drop the prosecution; and very few suffered the punishment due to this enormity. [Ed: Tacit condonation of these crimes {e.g. institutionalised racism} by the London authorities gave the green light to the massacre in York, and indeed, the conspirators who caused 150 deaths of men women and children were given 'cosmetic' punishment; the ring-leader Richard Malbis (a local laird) was fined £40.00!  A profitable deal when you consider that by killing the Jews he had released himself from hundreds of pounds worth of debt! ]

"But the disorder stopped not at London. The inhabitants of the other cities of England, hearing of this slaughter of the Jews imitated the example.

"In York five hundred of that nation who had retired into the castle for safety, and found themselves unable to defend the place, murdered their own wives and children, threw the dead bodies over the walls upon the populace, and then setting fire to the houses, perished in the flames.

"The gentry of the neighbourhood, who were all indebted to the Jews, ran to the cathedral, where their bonds were kept, and made a solemn bonfire of the papers before the altar.

"The compiler of the Annals of Waverley, [ Ed: A pious monk of Waverly Abbey] in relating these events, blesses the Almighty for delivering over this impious race to destruction."

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