Prologue:  This amazing article was was published in 1992 during the hiatus of the Satan Hysteria and has been overlooked since.  It is an important source work and historical document for it is one of the few from those times which actually gives an accurate view from the perspective of the rational side of child-care and social work.   The SAFF have republished it today 28 years later with the addition of Editorial references and links to papers and documents which show how the myth progressed and ultimately failed. It proves how accurate Long's appraisal of the situation was at that time and why he felt he had to quit Social Work and emigrate to escape it.  Together the original text and the editorial additions and inclusion of  new images not included in the original text, bring the  reader up to date and show beyond question that allegations of Satanic Ritual Child Abuse were a myth of historical proportions.  


Where Reason Sleeps Monsters Reign (Goya)

The Satanic Abuse Myth

by David Long


This article is written by David Long who recently resigned from being

a social worker, 'dissatisfied with the purpose and direction of social work’


Once again more information is emerging about the prevalence of satanic and ritualistic abuse. Recently ‘Dispatches' on Channel Four, [Ed: BEYOND BELIEF', (broadcast at 10.30 pm on 19th February 1992)] the book Blasphemous Rumours by the producer of the programme, Andrew Boyd, and prior to that Tim Tate’s book, ‘Children for the Devil'  have all gained publicity.  There are also a number of books from adult survivors. What is surprising is the lack of an effective critique. (but see Here & Now 11, & 12 for just such an attempt at critique).


This is now forthcoming in the United States where concern is expressed at the denial of rationality. the failure to consider empirical evidence and the serious implications for those caught up in the process, particularly the children.  At the onset it should be made clear that sexual abuse is a major problem which requires resources and skilled intervention.  It is one thing to accept this and quite another to jump to an acceptance of a national and international conspiracy.  It is the view of an increasing number of academics and professionals that in the 1980s America was in the grip of a classic witch-hunt which bears some resemblance to the Inquisition. The lessons learnt from the mass hysteria which occurred in the Salem witch trials of 1692 has not been lost on some American academic observers of the recent satanic scares.


In Salem a supposed outbreak of witchcraft led to formal trials in which 27 people were convicted on the basis of children's' accusations. 19 were hung, one stoned and four others died in prison. Several month after the trials. jurors and officials were stricken with remorse about what they had done to innocent people. Compensation to the descendants of those tried continued until 1957.


The evidence for satanic ritualistic abuse in the United States seems to come from two sources. Firstly. the reports from adult survivors themselves and those of their councillors who interpret repressed memories which were uncovered during therapy. Secondly there are allegations involving young children in day care centres. Rumour of satanic cult ritual abuse of children appeared to start after the publication of Michelle Remembers in 1980 - the story of a supposed adult survivor. Shortly after followed allegations of Satanists operating in day care centres.


The most famous case in the McMartin Pre-School Case which began in Manhattan Beach. California. It proved to be the most expensive and longest trial in American history. The initial allegations linked Devil worship cult. As a result of the allegations sixty two year old Peggy McMartin Buckley, her son Raymond Buckley and five other child care workers were arrested. They were accused of victimising 360 children in extremely bizarre sexual acts. In January 1990 the two remaining defendants Peggy and Raymond Buckley were found innocent of most of the charges against them and later that year the remaining charges against Raymond Buckley were dropped. The Jury were not aware until after the trial that the woman who initiated the allegations was a paranoid schizophrenic (New York Times, Feb. I, 1991 & July 281991).


This case generated a number of volunteer organisations of parents and child care workers which were committed to alerting the public to the hidden dangers of ritual child abuse. the largest being “Believe The Children". This resulted in a host of similar accusations across the country with more and more bizarre allegations emerging. It is possible to consider all of these but it is worth noting that there have been no findings of physical evidence to corroborate claims for the existence of satanic cults, human sacrifice, satanic orgies or a widespread conspiracy. Kenneth Lanning, the leading F.B.l. expert on the issue. following investigations into over 200 such allegations believes that satanic abuse conspiracies are nonsensical. (l)  

 [Ed: Click here to read a full copy of Lanning's FBI report, 'Investigators guide to allegations of ritual child abuse'-  ]



One of the problems for those critics who place emphasis on empirical evidence is that the picture is fluid and cases have now emerged in Holland. France. Australia, the UK. and New Zealand. As quickly as one is proven to be nonsense another emerges. The major tragedy is the growing number of innocent people whose lives are irreparably damaged. For example in Kern County. California. between 1984 and 1985 a satanic cult rumour resulted in the arrest of 77 people whom local police believed were involved in a satanic cult. Dozens of people in several trials were given custodial sentences. In one of these cased, 7 people were convicted and imprisoned for Sexually molesting children as part of a satanic cult. the only evidence against them came from the testimony of children who alleged they were injected with drugs and forced to drink urine, as well as engaging in bizarre sexual rituals with adults. the children also accused the defendants of murdering at least 20 babies, using their blood in rituals and engaging in cannibalism. Some of the children later recanted their stories. In 1990 the convictions were overturned on appeal. (2)


One of the most insidious things about such cases is the way individuals. who cautioned against presuming the guilt of those accused. became suspect themselves. In another case in Jordan. Minnesota. a policeman who vouched for the character of an accused person was charged himself. (3) In Chicago, two women who vouched for an accused person. found their names on a list of child molesters being circulated by a concerned parents group.


This has some parallels with the McCarthyite red scare of the 1950s in the sense that it is a witch hunt for moral subversives engaged in a secretive and conspiratorial network. Such scares have emerged since time immemorial and the reasons for this have been analysed by LS. Victor in ‘Satanic Scares’, 1991. Victor argues that “Satanism” and “satanic cult” are socially constructed labels based on preconceptions. rather than any empirical analysis of what the labels presume to identify.  Such scares tend to occur in an unplanned way in response to the Shared source of stress in a society. In this case it has manifested itself in many different spheres of social life. including claims 0f satanic cult crimes which include kidnapping. serial murder, infanticide, grave robbery, vandalism of churches. censorship campaigns against children‘s' books. alleged subliminal satanic messages in rock music and fantasy role play games, i.e. Dungeons and Dragons. Halloween comes in for special attention.


[Ed: For an overview of the perennial campaign by fundamentalists and evangelicals against Halloween this well-researched article here:  shows how Christian fundamentalist activists, many of whom were directly involved in the campaign to establish belief in  Satanic Ritual Child Abuse,  organised a national anti-Halloween campaign using SRA as the driver, which drew and manipulated the Church of England itself. ]


There is a long history of Satanic cult scares. the most notorious being the blood rite libel. Some of our earliest written sources for this come down to us from the 2nd Century A.D.. where in a period of Roman instability, interestingly enough, it is the small prototype Christian sects who are accused of slaughtering children and ritually devouring them. (4) Since then, traditionally and more infamously it has been the Jews who have been persecuted with this horrendous slander. This notion was frequently interlinked with the idea of an international conspiracy to take over the world.  At the beginning of the 20th Century a stress on Russian orthodoxy under Tsar Nicholas II saw pogroms against the Jews which linked the above notions.  An international cause celebre was a case of Mendel Beilis. a Kiev Jew accused of the ritual murder of a Gentile child in 1911.   Hitler replicated this process and it is perhaps a salient point to note where such irrationality can lead.  

[Ed: See also Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln false blood-libel case in England in 1246 – there are other  examples. The earliest documented blood-libel in England was the boy William of Norwich who disappeared unaccountably in 1144 whereupon Theobald of Canterbury, a Jewish Christian Convert, invented the tale of a yearly Christian sacrifice by the Jews to blame them for it. ]  



In considering factors of causation for the current crusade against satanic abuse. it is necessary to examine the role of the media. Likewise attention must also be given to the plethora of volunteer organisations who perpetrate the myth.


The ‘Los Angeles Times' on Jan. 19th. 1990. in its report on the McMartin case. recognised media responsibility by observing  that “as the record shows. the media frequently plunged into hysteria. sensationalism and what one editor calls ‘a lynch mob syndrome‘ “ in its treatment of the issue.

This equally applies to the English situation.


Volunteer organisations have been organising to educate the public. Regularly held conferences have both promoted the idea of a Satanic abuse conspiracy and offered united support for those groups who perpetuate the myth. ‘Believe the Children‘ is new a national organisation which publishes a regular newsletter, provides information and organises support groups. police training manuals and social work training videos are being produced. ‘Professionals‘ then set themselves up as ‘experts' and then alert people as to the ‘signs' of ritualistic abuse. The dissemination of ‘satanic indicators' has led to their use by public sector professionals as well as charitable and voluntary organisations. some of which are of national standing. A large network now communicates elaborate assumptions about ritualistic abuse.


Faced With such frightening claims. many people fall back on their ideological preconceptions. This is then fuelled by religious fundamentalists who come from an ideological tradition which affirms the existence of secret conspiracies of evil. They are therefore receptive to conspiracy theories. There is ample evidence that evangelical groups have targeted professionals in the child care field in both the UK. and the United States as a likely receptive audience for these views.



This still leaves unanswered why these views have managed to achieve the hold they have. The social process leading to the creation of false stories of ritual abuse amongst children is analysed by psychiatrist Lee Colman, and attomey Patrick Clancey, both of whom have considerable experience in child abuse cases. (5)

They found that poorly trained therapists often used leading questions. cueing of desired responses, praise for desired answers and manipulated fantasy play to implant ideas about ritual abuse in the communication process between the child and therapist. Similar conclusions are reached by Wakefield and Underwager in their review of the research evidence about therapists' interviewing techniques. (6)

A comparison of the cross examination of the children in the witch trials of Salem and the McMartin disclosures is illuminating. It is evident that satanic disclosures are achieved through the employment of interviewing techniques which fit the model of a process called ‘priming' by social psychologists.


The research on priming indicates that it is most likely to happen when an authority figure questions a child who is nervous and highly suggestible. In intent that process is not necessarily deliberate or conscious. If a child care worker inadvertently shapes a discourse around preconceptions concerning ritual abuse. then priming can easily occur.


Debbie Nathan in "The Making of a Modern Witch Trial' illustrates how this can happen. Nathan points out  that

“according to 3 decades worth of literature, children don't lie about it. If a girl says grandpa, daddy or uncle had sex with her. she isn’t likely to be making it up; but often after she has come forward with the accusation she '11 back off and recant in a desperate attempt to keep her family from shattering or her father going to gaol."



 The process by which this occurs has been called the “incest accommodation syndrome" by Roland Summit a Californian Psychiatrist who was prominent in the McMartin case and who is a proponent of the satanic abuse myth. (7) He argues that if a girl says it happened. then a concerned social worker or therapist must act as an advocate by believing her. If she later recants. you should show you care by not believing her. Nathan points out that in the McMartin case and others. the children offered ‘Vague. garbled and contradictory stories". and many admitted they had lied - often as a response to repeated questioning. The problem Was that the “incest accommodation syndrome" was applied despite the cases not being about incest. the logic of why a child should about to protect adults who are not part of the family seems not to have been considered. According to Namanv the assumptions operating were. “believe the child. however sketchy the evidence and never take no for an answer". This sanctions coercive and interrogative interviewing.


It is possible for children to ‘remember' events which did not happen. much research suggests that childhood memories are largely the product of learning in conversations and are structured by the discourse between the child and others. Thus when over-zealous therapists ‘prime‘ the discourse between the child and themselves. they may gradually implant reconstructed memories of events. these false memories can then become ‘subjectively real' events in the memory of the child. because there is a preconception of ritualistic abuse, the therapist digs away until the child confirms the hypothesis and with children they have fertile territory on which to work. Opie and Opie (1959), studied the superstitions of 5,000 children throughout England. (8) They found that the thinking of children aged between 2 years and 6 years was characterised by magical thinking. there was no sense of probability. Foley and Johnson found that 6 to 9 year old children had difficulty in distinguishing between what they did and what they imagined doing. (9)  The work of Piaget confirms these views.

Succinctly put it is not simply a question of “children don‘t lie", it is a question of treating seriously what they say and the crucial point comes in interpreting it. Indeed research into sexual abuse. regardless of satanic abuse, now indicates that children in divorce custody disputes where access is at issue, sometimes fabricate allegations of sexual abuse as a result of adult pressure  (10)


Other alleged major evidence of satanic abuse comes from so called survivors. Numerous books have been written by those who claim to be childhood victims. The first and most important account is that of Michelle Smith in ‘Michelle Remembers' . This purports to be the true story of a woman. who after 200 hours in therapy, remembers being the victim of satanic abuse in childhood. As co-authors. Michelle Smith and Dr. Lawrence Pazder, the therapist whom she subsequently married, embarked on a lecture tour of the United States alerting churches and the media to the dangers. Smith had been referred to Pazder in 1976 by her General Practitioner following a miscarriage. She was traumatised and in a state of turmoil. Pazder took Smith through seven years of therapy during which. it is alleged. repressed memories of satanic abuse were brought to the surface. including a memory of the destruction of an infant. It is pointed out that the abuse took place in 1954 and 1955 and involved a large number of perpetrators. from this Pazder concluded that he had discovered a highly organised ritual which had the worship of Satan as its goal.


In Pazder's care. Smith underwent a highly contentious therapy which consisted of hypnosis. prayers to the virgin Mary and exorcism.

Anthropologist Sherill Mulhem is of the opinion that Smith‘s memories were constructed piecemeal under hypnotism, with Pazder introducing notions of Satanism.  Mulhem. researched other “survivors” and their therapists and realised she was not dealing with a real cult, but with people linked to a delusionary belief in one.  Mulhem found common themes in the traumatised lives of teenage runaways who became “survivors” under therapy.  There were histories of involvement in prostitution. drug abuse which had led to personality disorders, and most significantly, all had fundamentalist Christian parents or had become 'born-again'. Whilst being 'born-again' they were hypnotised by self-styled Christian therapists .(11)


Adult survivors alleged  to be suffering from a condition known as multiple personality disorder or MPD. This leads them to adopts different selves in order to block out the trauma and shock of their satanic abuse. Only the therapist who can understand the condition and know how to treat it could uncover patients memories of ritual abuse. What is rarely mentioned is that there is considerable debate surrounding the label M.P.D. and that there is a body of psychiatric opinion which seen it as a high status diagnosis for both the therapist and patient.   In many instances it is iatrogenic - ie. comes from within the therapist and is projected onto the patient.  Ray Aldridge in ‘Multiple Personality.- An Exercise in Deception", maintains that even if multiple personality is accepted as a discrete psychiatric syndrome, it has been grossly over diagnosed.  He notes the lack of empirical evidence to support it and believes that it is heavily dependant on cultural influences for both its emergence and diagnosis. He hypothesises that multiple Personality may be a variant of hysterical psychosis which occurs in highly suggestible persons.”


[Ed: Multiple Personality Disorder became discredited during the 1990s when unbiased psychiatrists looked into it, but supporters and practitioners of it simply changed tack and offered Dissociative Identity Disorder (D.I.D) to their patients instead.  DID is still being employed to identify adult SRA victims today.  The corollary of DID is RMT (Recovered Memory Therapy) a form of hypnosis which claims to release repressed memories of Satanic Abuse in patients.  DID and RMT confabulations are at the root of most of the claims of SRA from adults now and opportunist Christian fundamentalists are currently actually equating DID with Possession.  The 'Alters' (personalities said to take over the mind of the patient in MPD) are seen by them as Devils and they are employing DID in conjunction with Exorcism rites as genuine psychiatric treatment! ]



Sheriff Mulhem offers a further explanation as to why the notions of satanic conspiracies have achieved prominence. (12) She attended l4 conferences on Satanic and ritualistic abuse between 1987 and 1990 and all offered training in the identification and treatment of satanic and ritualistic victims. Mulhem points out that all these conferences formed a two stage procedure. The first stage was to construct a belief filter with listeners exhorted to believe. The second stage is built on the first and assumes all claims are real. Therapists are then given suggestions for treatment using technique with unknown validity and reliability. Mulhem concludes;

“Conversion to believe provides individuals with the intimate conviction that they can suddenly see and understand realities with they have never seen before. However. when uncritical belief becomes lynchpin of all understanding, anything which would cause the believer to doubt must be systematically eliminated.  Succinctly, the ear educated exclusively by belief is also a deaf ear."


The Tragedy for British social work is that it has not learnt from the American experience.  Cases have been reported across the country in Nottingham. Manchester, Liverpool. Rochdale, Orkney and Epping Forest and all raise similar concerns to the American experience. A recent Dispatches programme on Channel 4 Also claimed to have discovered evidence of widespread satanic abuse [Ed: Andrew Boyd’s 'Beyond Belief' – see above].


Space prevents consideration of all these cases but it is worth considering the judgement of Mr. Justice Brown on the Rochdale case delivered in March 1991.  He stated;


 “there was over interviewing of the children. leading to elaboration. exaggeration or fabrication on the part of the child. there was a confusing combination of assessment with therapy, and once therapy is started any further evidence obtained is almost certain to be contaminated. 'E'ie children were also interviewed for very long periods of time. Anatomically correct dolls were used in a most inappropriate and helpful way. obvious fantasy was accepted without question and may have stemmed from the social workers' failure to recognise fantasy until it was transferred into reality. for example by talking about the contents of dreams as if they were real. “


Mr. Justice Brown accused the social workers of “being obsessed" with their own belief that the children were victims of ritual abuse.


Similarly, the Epping Forest Case. November 1992. collapsed when the judge instructed the jury to return “not guilty" verdicts on the three men and two women in the dock. They were acquitted when Michael Lawson Q.C. admitted he could no longer rely on the testimony of the youngest of the alleged victims; who claimed amongst other things that she had seen babies sacrificed and had been forced to eat their flesh. This ‘victim‘ admitted under cross examination that she had lied about the role of her father. fabricated names of others and could not be Certain whether the killings had happened. The judge, Mr. I justice Turner, said the child's evidence was, “so certain, inconsistent and improbable. it would not be right to seek a conviction.



Undeterred the proponents of the Satanic scare continue.  The recent Dispatches programme (Beyond Belief,  Channel 4 ) claimed to offer evidence of a satanic abuse conspiracy.  What it did show was a performing arts video inter-cut with a sado masochistic video. The adult survivor who confessed to murdering her own child turned out to be a person with a serious psychiatric history, who had been through therapy in an evangelical retreat where her repressed memories were uncovered by an evangelical minister.   The producer of the programme, Andrew Boyd, also failed to make clear his own bias.

[Ed: Boyd was a fundamentalist Christian activist who worked for Prophetic World Ministries and edited a Tract sheet called 'God's Word Now' which proposed manic religious alternatives – see .]

In his book. ‘Blasphemous Rumours'. Andrew Boyd. the producer of the Despatches programme, quotes interviews from carers, therapists and survivors who claim to know of over 900 victims of ritual abuse in Britain.  Using anecdotal evidence liberally, the author acknowledges that there is no empirical evidence substantiating the claims. The question of proof in his own words “can be left to posterity".


Boyd's attempts to add historical weight to his thesis are not convincing. historically his conclusions are weak. for example. in an effort to prove that satanic abuse has existed for hundreds of years. he refers to the case of Gilles de Laval de Rais, Marshal of France, who was hanged and burned in Nantes, "as an occultist and alchemist in 1440", (13)  this ignores the fact that even by the standards of the time, the trial against de Rais was highly irregular in that not one of his five hundred servants was allowed to testify on his behalf. most of the evidence against him was hearsay and those who did testify against him were tortured prior to doing so. (14)




He is no more convincing when convincing when referring to contemporary material. For example. lengthy quotations from the founder of Child Watch [Ed: Dianne Core] suggesting that there exists a satanic cult on Humberside by the name of 'Scorpio', are presented to us without concrete evidence. Tim Tate, another proponent of Satanic Abuse would seem to disagree.  In “Children for the Devil" he describes the founder of Childwatch operating in a climate of feverish paranoia and having invented by her questioning of children the Scorpio conspiracy.  Can we look forward to the battle of the sensationalists in the academic press?


Standing back I do not wish to comment on the validity of these views. However the inherent contradictions would seem to indicate Boyd's tendency to selectively present information. especially as he refers to Tate‘s book throughout.


Historical flaws also abound in the work of Tim Tate.  Referring to the case of Sister Magdelaine Bavent who in 1633 made allegations against satanic practices with the priesthood involving satanic orgies, he quotes from her testimony -


‘ On Maundy Thursday I saw the Lord’s supper being celebrated in a horrible way, a roasted child was brought in. It was eaten by the assembly, and I could not say with certainty whether I tasted it.


Tate links this testimony with that of a "15 year old survivor" who in 1988 described a similar banquet; presumably in an effort to substantiate his dubious thesis that satanic abuse has been a feature of life for hundreds of years. He omits to mention that Magdelaine Bavent asserted that her testimony before the court had been “based upon nothing else than the vivid suggestion she retained from the questioning" of the investigators. (15)  


[Ed: The 15 year old, pseudonymous Natalie, appeared in silhouette in The Cook Report's special on Satanic Ritual Abuse titled, The Devil's Work. Tim Tate was the researcher and co-producer on that programme which was broadcast in July 1989.  Natalie told her hysterical story and clips of her doing so have tugged at the heartstrings of millions of people all over the web who believe in the existence of Satanic Abuse.  The fact is, as David Long points out, that her case was held at the Old Bailey in  April 1989 and kicked out after three days because under questioning her claims turned out to be false.  The judge threw it out after the defence withdrew their case.  Instead of reflecting this in his programme, Cook went ahead two months later with portraying this discredited witness  as a victim of and proof of Satanic Ritual Abuse.   They did the reverse with Colonel Michael Aquino, the head of the Temple of Set Satanic order in the U.S.  He had spurious allegations of SRA made against him.  The army/police investigation concluded there was no firm evidence a month before Cook went ahead with his programme, yet the programme makers still broadcast those failed  accusations against him.  Full story: ]


Selective interpretations are a common feature of Tate's book its references to the Nottingham case are riddled with inaccuracy.  As his book is currently the subject to legal proceedings I will refrain from further comment, at least for the time being.

[Ed: Tate lost the case and had to pay damages. His book, 'Children for The Devil' was subsequently withdrawn and pulped  due to inaccuracies related to the Nottingham 'Broxtowe' SRA case.  The history of the libel writ is here:  and Tim Tate's misrepresentations concerning the Broxtowe case are laid out here:  ]



If the American experience is anything to go by, Britain is in the grip of a satanic abuse myth. As mentioned earlier. sexual abuse, including group abuse is a grave problem. this article contends that a classic “witch hunt" is currently taking place which detracts from the reality of the problem, not least in terms of wasted resources, of greater concern is the damage to the children. American psychologist Ralph Underwager puts this succinctly,


 “to treat a child as if satanic abuse were real is to teach that child that the world is filled with evil. that powerful forces can hurt and destroy us and we cannot stop it. Is is to train a child to destroy others, to believe in the most macabre, disgusting and horrifying events. It is to train a child to live in an irrational world in an irrational manner and to steal from the child the ability to live a life of reason and logical coping skills. It is to reify a child‘s most terrifying fantasies and force a child to grow into an adult whose world remains at the level of a constant night terror. it is to run the risk of training a child to be psychotic. not able to distinguish between reality and unreality. it is to irrevocably and likely irretrievably damage a child and induce a life long experience of emotional distress.” (16)



1] Lanning K.V. (1989 Oct) Satanic, Occult Ritualistic Crime: A Law Enforcement Perspective. The Police  Chief pp62/63.

2] Snedeker,M (1988.ApriI/June), The Rise and Fall of the Devil in Kern County, California: pts 1&2.  California Prisoner.

3] Charier,T and Downings (,18.19). Facts,Fantasies Caught In Tangled Webs. Jan 17th., Allegations of Odd Rights  Compelled Closer Look. Jan.17th., Allegations Rife, Evidence Slight, Jan 18th Links to the Abuse of Children Hard to P rove, Jan 18m", Memphis Commercial Appeal.

4] Piiny, AD 112-3, Epistola X, M. Cornelius Fronto, Legatio pro Christianis.111, AD. 160, Minudus Felix, Octavius, Tatian, Oratio  ad Graecos, Tertuiiian, AD. 197, Apologeticum, Justin Martyr, ‘Apology’ and ‘Dialogue with the Jew Trypho’.

5] Coleman,L & Clancy P.E.(l990,Fall), False Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse, Criminal Justice. pp14-20, 43-47.

6.]Wakefield, H & Underwager,R (1989). Evaluating the Child Witness in Sexual Abuse Case: Interview or Inquisition? American  Journal of Forensic Psychology, (3), pp 43-59.

7] See Nathan, D (June 12-1990) The Ritual Sex Abuse Hoax. Village Voice, p.40.

8] Opie, P & Opie,l(l959),'The Lore 8: Language of School Children, London: Oxford University Press.

9] Foley, MA. & Johnson MK. (1985), Confusion Between Memories for Performed and Imagined Actions: A Developmental Comparison, Child Development no56, pp 1,145-1,155.

10] Wakefield H. 8; Underwager, R. (1990), Personal Characteristics of Parents Making False Accusations of Sexual Abuse in  Custody Disputes, [sues in Child Abuse Accusations, vol.2, pp.121-]36.

11] As 7. above.

12] Mulhearn, S.(1991), Ritual Abuse: Defining a Syndrome VS Defending a Belief, unpublished ms.p4.

l3] Boyd, A. (192), Blasphemous Rumours, Fount, p. 113.

14] Robbins, R.H, The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology, (1959) Bookplan, p.407.

15] As 14.

16] Wakefield H. & Underwager, R. Why Some and not Others?, Issues in Child Abuse Accusations. vol. iii, no}, p.191.


Other Books Consulted Include:- !!br0ken!! Europe’s Inner Demons, 1975. Heinemann; Kochan, The Making of Modern Russia, 1963.Penguin: Piaget, J. The Child's Conception of the World, 1973, Paladdln: Tate T. Children for the Devil: Ritual Abuse and Satanic Crime,1990 Methuen; Richardson.J. Best.J & Bromley,D Eds. The Satanism Scare, 1991, New York, Aldine de Gruyter.,


David Long.